Napoleon’s systems of bureaucracy and uniform administration lay the foundations for European union.
Key point 2
German economist Friedrich List thought that European countries would create a commercial union to protect themselves against British economic hegemony, but also that the union’s success could later attract Britain to join.
Key point 3
The 18th century idea of free trade was to eliminate treaties; in the 19th century, many European countries signed commercial treaties to promote freer forms of trade.